Phosphocreatine, also known as creatine phosphate (CP) or PCr (Pcr), is a phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle and the brain.
Sphingosine (2-amino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol) is an 18-carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, which forms a primary part of sphingolipids, a class of cell membrane lipids that include sphingomyelin, an important phospholipid.
Squalene is a natural 30-carbon organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil (hence its name, as Squalus is a genus of sharks), although plant sources (primarily vegetable oils) are now used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.
Shikimic acid, more commonly known as its anionic form shikimate, is a cyclohexene, a cyclitol and a cyclohexanecarboxylic acid.
In organic chemistry, a chlorin is a large heterocyclic aromatic ring consisting, at the core, of three pyrroles and one pyrroline coupled through four =CH- linkages.
Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate type which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life.
Butyric acid (from Greek βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
Phenethylamine (PEA), also known as β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) and 2-phenylethan-1-amine, is an organic compound and a natural monoamine alkaloid, a trace amine, and also the name of a class of chemicals with many members that are well known for their psychoactive and stimulant effects.
Porphyrins are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (=CH−).
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
β-Hydroxybutyric acid, also known as 3-hydroxybutyric acid, is an organic compound and a beta hydroxy acid with the formula CH3CH(OH)CH2CO2H; its conjugate base is beta-hydroxybutyrate, also known as 3-hydroxybutyrate.
Corrin is an heterocyclic compound.
δ-Aminolevulinic acid (dALA or δ-ALA or 5ala or 5-aminolevulinic acid ) is the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway, the pathway that leads to heme in mammals and chlorophyll in plants.
Resin acid refers to mixtures of several related carboxylic acids, primarily abietic acid, found in tree resins.
1,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid (1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate or 1,3BPG) is a 3-carbon organic molecule present in most, if not all, living organisms.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n (/ˈkaɪtᵻn/ KY-tin) is a long-chain polymer of an N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin D refers to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), inositol polyphosphate, or phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903, a saturated cyclic acid, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds.
Angiogenin (Ang) also known as ribonuclease 5 is a small 123 amino acid protein that in humans is encoded by the ANG gene.
Heme C (or haem C) is an important kind of heme.
Heme O (or haem O) differs from the closely related heme A by having a methyl group at ring position 8 instead of the formyl group.
Heme B or haem B (also known as protoheme IX) is the most abundant heme.
Heme A (or haem A) is a heme, a coordination complex consisting of a macrocyclic ligand called a porphyrin, chelating an iron atom.
SAR1A or Sar1 is a protein involved in membrane trafficking.
Porphin, sometimes spelled porphine, is the parent chemical compound for types of biochemically significant compounds called porphyrins.
Gymnochrome E is a cytotoxic phenanthroperylenequinone isolated from a deep-water crinoid called Holopus rangii.
3-Indolepropionic acid (IPA), or indole-3-propionic acid, is a potent neuroprotective antioxidant and plant auxin that is being studied for therapeutic use in Alzheimer's disease.
(E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP or HMB-PP) is an intermediate of the MEP pathway (non-mevalonate pathway) of isoprenoid biosynthesis.
Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) is a biomolecule found in most organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants and animals.
Beta-Hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid
(Not to be confused with β-Hydroxybutyric acid.) β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB), otherwise known as its conjugate base, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (hydroxymethylbutyrate, HMB), is a naturally occurring metabolite in humans that is used as an ingredient in medical foods and sold as a dietary supplement.
Crotonyl-coenzyme A is an intermediate in the fermentation of butyric acid, and in the metabolism of lysine and tryptophan.
β-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA (or 3-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A) is an intermediate in the fermentation of butyric acid, and in the metabolism of lysine and tryptophan.
ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) is an oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyses the formation and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotes.
Lactoferricin is an amphipathic, cationic peptide with anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties.
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide, belonging to the class of nuclear factor agonists.
DnaA is a protein that activates initiation of DNA replication in bacteria.
Pentosidine is a biomarker for advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs.
Dihydrobiopterin (BH2) is a pteridine compound produced in the synthesis of L-DOPA, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Phosphopantetheine, also known as 4'-Phosphopantetheine, is an essential prosthetic group of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) and aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) derived from Coenzyme A.
Neurturin (NRTN) is a protein.
5-Bromouracil (or 5-bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione or 5-BrU or 5-BU) is a brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite or base analog, substituting for thymine in DNA, and can induce DNA mutation in the same way as 2-aminopurine.
Isoemericellin is a bio-active isolate of the marine fungus Emericella variecolor.
β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A (HMB-CoA), also known as 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-CoA, is a metabolite of L-leucine that is produced in the human body.